Green chemistry - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

applications of green chemistry wikipedia

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY Approved by: Dr. Charles A Eckert, Advisor School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Charles L Liotta, Co-Advisor School of Chemistry and Biochemistry Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Amyn Teja School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. Examples and applications of green chemistry: Super critical fluids: the use of co2 as a substitute for organic solvents already represents a tool of waste reduction in chemical industry. Of the wide range of supercritical carbon dioxide reactions that have been explored, one class of reaction has shown exceptional promise. of green chemistry were introduced in , including the Journal of Clean Processes and Green Chemistry, sponsored by the Royal Society of Chemistry. The concept of green chemistry incorporates a new approach to the synthesis, processing and application of chemical substances in .


Green chemistry - Wikipedia


Green nanotechnology refers to the use of nanotechnology to enhance the environmental sustainability of processes producing negative externalities. It also refers to the use of the products of nanotechnology to enhance sustainability. It includes making green nano-products and using nano-products in support of sustainability. Green nanotechnology has been described as the development of clean technologies"to minimize potential environmental and human health risks associated with the manufacture and use of nanotechnology products, and to encourage replacement of existing products with new nano-products that are more environmentally friendly throughout their lifecycle.

Green nanotechnology has two goals: producing nanomaterials and products without harming the environment or human health, applications of green chemistry wikipedia, and producing nano-products that provide solutions to environmental problems. It uses existing principles of green chemistry and green engineering [2] to make nanomaterials and nano-products without toxic ingredients, at low temperatures using less energy and renewable inputs wherever possible, and using lifecycle thinking in all design and engineering stages.

In addition to making nanomaterials and products with less impact to the environment, green nanotechnology also means using nanotechnology to make current manufacturing processes for non-nano materials and products more environmentally friendly. For example, nanoscale membranes can help separate desired chemical reaction products from waste materials. Nanoscale catalysts can make chemical applications of green chemistry wikipedia more efficient and less wasteful.

Sensors at the nanoscale can form a part of process control systemsworking with nano-enabled information systems. Using alternative energy systems, made possible by nanotechnology, is another way to "green" manufacturing processes.

The second goal of green nanotechnology involves developing products that benefit the environment either directly or indirectly. Nanomaterials or products directly can clean hazardous waste sites, desalinate watertreat pollutants, or sense and monitor environmental applications of green chemistry wikipedia. Indirectly, lightweight nanocomposites for automobiles and other means of transportation could save fuel and reduce materials used for production; nanotechnology-enabled fuel cells and light-emitting diodes LEDs could reduce pollution from energy generation and help conserve fossil fuels; self-cleaning nanoscale surface coatings could reduce or eliminate many cleaning chemicals used in regular maintenance routines; [3] and enhanced battery life could lead to less material use and less waste.

Green Nanotechnology takes a broad systems view of nanomaterials and products, ensuring that unforeseen consequences are minimized and that impacts are anticipated throughout the full life cycle, applications of green chemistry wikipedia.

Research is underway to use nanomaterials for purposes including more efficient solar cellspractical fuel cellsand environmentally friendly batteries. The most advanced nanotechnology projects related to energy are: storage, conversion, manufacturing improvements by reducing materials and process rates, energy saving by better thermal insulation for exampleand enhanced renewable energy sources.

One major project that is being worked on is the development of nanotechnology in solar cells. The price per watt of solar energy is lower than one dollar. Research is ongoing to use nanowires and other nanostructured materials with the hope of to create cheaper and more efficient solar cells than are possible with conventional planar silicon solar cells.

Materials with small nanosized pores may be suitable for hydrogen storage. Nanotechnology may also find applications in batterieswhere the use of nanomaterials may enable batteries with higher energy content or supercapacitors with a higher rate of recharging, applications of green chemistry wikipedia.

Nanotechnology is already used to provide improved performance coatings for photovoltaic PV and solar thermal panels. Hydrophobic and self-cleaning properties combine to create more efficient solar panels, especially during inclement weather. PV covered with nanotechnology coatings are said to stay cleaner for longer to applications of green chemistry wikipedia maximum energy efficiency is maintained.

Nanotechnology offers the potential of novel nanomaterials for the treatment of surface water, groundwaterwastewaterand other environmental materials contaminated by toxic metal ions, organic and inorganic solutes, and microorganisms.

Due to their unique activity toward recalcitrant contaminants, applications of green chemistry wikipedia, many nanomaterials are under active research and development for use in the treatment of water and contaminated sites. The present market of nanotech-based technologies applied in water treatment consists of reverse osmosis ROnanofiltration, ultrafiltration membranes.

Indeed, among emerging products one can name nanofiber filters, carbon nanotubes and various nanoparticles. This efficiency generally stems from the very high specific surface area of nanomaterials which increases dissolution, reactivity and sorption of contaminants. Nanoremediation is the use of nanoparticles for e nvironmental remediation. Some nanoremediation methods, particularly the use of nano zerovalent iron for groundwater cleanup, have been deployed at full-scale cleanup sites.

This process typically involves a pump-and-treat process or in situ application. Other methods remain in research phases. Scientists have been researching the capabilities of buckminsterfullerene in controlling pollution, applications of green chemistry wikipedia, as it may be able to control certain chemical reactions.

Buckminsterfullerene has been demonstrated as having the ability of inducing the protection of reactive oxygen species and causing lipid peroxidation. This material may allow for hydrogen fuel to be more accessible to consumers. This method has been developed by among others, by professor Vladimir Afanasiew, at the Moscow Nuclear Institution.

This applications of green chemistry wikipedia is targeted to clean Sea, river, lake and landfill waste waters. It even removes radioactive isotopes from the sea water, after Nuclear Power Stations catastrophes and cooling water plant towers.

By this technology pharmaca rests are being removed as well as narcotics and tranquilizers. Bottom layers and sides at lake and rivers can be returned, after being cleaned. Machinery used for this purpose are much similar to those of deep sea mining. Removed waste items are being sorted by the process, and can be re used as raw material for other industrial production.

Nanofiltration is a relatively recent membrane filtration process used most often with low total dissolved solids water such as surface water and fresh groundwaterwith the purpose of softening polyvalent cation removal and removal of disinfection by-product precursors such as natural organic matter and synthetic organic matter.

Nanofiltration membranes have pore sizes from Angstromsmaller than that used in microfiltration and ultrafiltrationbut just larger than that in reverse osmosis. Membranes used are predominantly created from polymer thin films. Materials that are commonly used include polyethylene terephthalate or metals such as aluminum.

Membranes made from polyethylene terephthalate and other similar materials, are referred to as "track-etch" membranes, named after the way the pores on the membranes are made. This results in making tracks that are chemically developed into the membrane, or "etched" into the membrane, which are the pores, applications of green chemistry wikipedia. Membranes created from metal such as alumina membranes, are made by electrochemically growing a thin layer of aluminum oxide from aluminum metal in an acidic medium.

Some water-treatment devices incorporating nanotechnology are already on the market, with more in development. Low-cost nanostructured separation membranes methods have been shown to be effective in producing potable water in a recent study.

Nanotechnology provides an alternative solution to clean germs in water, a problem that has been getting worse due to the population explosion, growing need for clean water and the emergence of additional pollutants. One of the alternatives offered is antimicrobial nanotechnology stated that several nanomaterials showed strong antimicrobial properties through diverse mechanisms, such as photocatalytic production of reactive oxygen species that damage cell components and viruses.

There are four classes of nanomaterials that are employed for water treatment and these are dendrimerszeolitescarbonaceous nanomaterials, and metals containing nanoparticles. The U. Conventionally, biological, applications of green chemistry wikipedia, dispersing, and gelling agents are deployed to remedy oil spills. Although, applications of green chemistry wikipedia, these methods have been used for decades, none of these techniques applications of green chemistry wikipedia retrieve the irreplaceable lost oil.

However, nanowires can not only swiftly clean up oil spills but also recover as much oil as possible. These nanowires form a mesh that absorbs up to twenty times its weight in hydrophobic liquids while rejecting water with its water repelling coating.

Since the potassium manganese oxide is very stable even at high temperatures, the oil can be boiled off the nanowires and both the oil and the nanowires can then be reused. InHurricane Katrina damaged or destroyed more than thirty oil platforms and nine refineries. The Interface Science Corporation successfully launched a new oil remediation and recovery application, which used the water repelling nanowires to clean up the oil spilled by the damaged oil platforms and refineries.

One innovation of green nanotechnology that is currently under development applications of green chemistry wikipedia nanomachines modeled after a bacteria bioengineered to consume plastics, Ideonella sakaiensis. These nano-machines are able to decompose plastics dozens of times faster than the bioengineered bacteria not only because of their increased surface area but also because of the fact that the energy released from decomposing the plastic is used to fuel the nano-machines, applications of green chemistry wikipedia.

In addition to water treatment and environmental remediation, nanotechnology is currently improving air quality. Nanoparticles can be engineered to catalyze, or hasten, the reaction to transform environmentally pernicious gases into harmless ones. For example, many industrial factories that produce large amounts harmful gases employ a type of nanofiber catalyst made of magnesium oxide Mg 2 O to purify dangerous organic substances in the smoke.

Although chemical catalysts already exist in the gaseous vapors from cars, nanotechnology has a greater chance of reacting with the harmful substances in the vapors. This greater probability comes from the fact that nanotechnology can interact with more particles because of its greater surface area.

Nanotechnology has been used to remediate air pollution including car exhaust pollution, and potentially greenhouse gases due to its high surface area. Based on research done by the Environmental Science Pollution Research International, nanotechnology can specifically help to treat carbon-based nanoparticles, greenhouse gases, and volatile organic compounds, applications of green chemistry wikipedia.

There applications of green chemistry wikipedia also work being done to develop antibacterial nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles, and amendment agents for phytoremediation processes. Nanotechnology can also give the possibility of preventing air pollution in the first place due to its extremely small scale, applications of green chemistry wikipedia.

Nanotechnology has been accepted as a tool for many industrial and domestic fields like gas monitoring systems, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors and many more.

Other sources state that applications of green chemistry wikipedia has the potential to develop the pollutants sensing and detection methods that already exist.

The ability to detect pollutants and sense unwanted materials will be heightened by the large surface area of nanomaterials and their high surface energy. The World Health Organization declared in that air contamination caused around 7 million deaths in This new technology could be an essential asset to this epidemic.

Nanoscale adsorbents being the main alleviator for many air pollution difficulties. Their structure permits a great interaction with organic compounds as well as increased selectivity and stability in maximum adsorption capacity.

Other advantages include high electrical and thermal conductivities, high strength, high hardness. Carbon nanotubes specifically applications of green chemistry wikipedia particles in many ways. One method is by passing them through the nanotubes where the molecules are oxidized; the molecules then are adsorbed on a nitrate species. Fullerene can be used to rid of carbon dioxide pollution due to its high adsorption capacity.

Graphene nanotubes have functional groups that adsorb gases. There are plenty of nanocatalysts that can be used for air pollution reduction and air quality.

Catalytic industrial emission reduction, car exhaust reduction, and air purification are just some of the major thrusts that these nanomaterials are being utilized within. Certain applications are not widely spread, applications of green chemistry wikipedia, but other are more popular.

Indoor air pollution is barely on the market yet, but it is being developed more efficiently due to complications with health effects. Car exhaust emission reduction is widely used in diesel fueled automobiles currently being one of the more popular applications.

Industrial emission reduction is also widely used. It is n integral method specifically at coal fired power plants as well as refineries. According to Macrothink Institute process control, ecosystem monitoring is becoming more sensitive and precise due to nanotechnology development and research.

These methods are analyzed and reviewed using SEM imaging to ensure its usefulness and accuracy. Additionally, research is currently being conducted to find out if nanoparticles can be engineered to separate car exhaust from methane or carbon dioxide, [33] which has been known to damage the Earth's ozone layer. In fact, John Zhu, a professor at the University of Queenslandis exploring the creation of a carbon nanotube CNT which can trap greenhouse gases hundreds of times applications of green chemistry wikipedia efficiently than current methods can.

Perpetual exposure to heavy metal pollution and particulate matter will lead to health concerns such as lung cancer, heart conditions, and even motor neuron diseases, applications of green chemistry wikipedia.

 

 

applications of green chemistry wikipedia

 

Examples and applications of green chemistry: Super critical fluids: the use of co2 as a substitute for organic solvents already represents a tool of waste reduction in chemical industry. Of the wide range of supercritical carbon dioxide reactions that have been explored, one class of reaction has shown exceptional promise. of green chemistry were introduced in , including the Journal of Clean Processes and Green Chemistry, sponsored by the Royal Society of Chemistry. The concept of green chemistry incorporates a new approach to the synthesis, processing and application of chemical substances in . Green chemistry, also called sustainable chemistry, is an area of chemistry and chemical engineering focused on the designing of products and processes that minimize or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. While environmental chemistry focuses on the effects of polluting chemicals on nature, green chemistry focuses on the environmental impact of chemistry, including .