Use of mobile phone during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion

 

smartphone during pregnancy

Apr 21,  · Pregnancy situations in the pregnant women in the control group were matched with maternal and paternal ages, gravidity, pre-pregnancy BMI, family relationship, duration from last delivery, educational level, occupation and history of previous abortions or Cited by: Apr 25,  · These are the best iPhone and Android apps to find information, answers, tools, and tracking during your pregnancy. From combating morning sickness and scheduling doctor’s visits, to Author: Jessica Timmons. Jul 23,  · A Smartphone Intervention for WIC Mothers to Improve Nutrition and Weight Gain During Pregnancy (SmartMomsinWIC) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it .


Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy


Box: —, Tehran, Iran. Exposure to electromagnetic fields of cell phones increasingly occurs, but the potential influence on spontaneous abortion has not been thoroughly investigated. Two data collection forms were completed; one was used to collect data about socioeconomic and obstetric characteristics, medical and reproductive history, and lifestyles, smartphone during pregnancy.

Another was used to collect data about the use of cell phones during pregnancy. Analyses were carried out with statistical package state software SPSS v, smartphone during pregnancy. Our result suggests that use of mobile phones can be related to the early spontaneous abortions. Widespread concerns have been raised about exposure to electromagnetic field EMF from sources used for mobile telecommunication [ 1 - 4 ], smartphone during pregnancy.

Much of the concern arises because new technologies are introduced without adequate provision upon public information about their nature or discussion of the debate within the scientific community about possible health consequences. Indeed, mobile phone use has increased considerably along with reducing its costs, and developing countries are establishing mobile telecommunications rather than the more expensive fixed-line systems. Thus, if there is an impact on health from mobile telephones, it will affect everyone in the world.

The major focus of research has been on radio-frequency RF radiation, which is mainly generated by phones, while some scientists are concerned about the possible impact of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ELF-EMF fields generated by supply currents in the phone [ 5 - 7 ]. The device with the largest power consumption is the front-end amplifier. The public discussion of the health hazards of EMF exposure has focused on the possible association with cancer, cardiovascular and immune systems, smartphone during pregnancy.

Less attention has been paid to the evaluation of evaluating the health hazards of EMF exposure on reproductive health such as spontaneous abortions [ 7 - 9 ], smartphone during pregnancy. The health effect of EMF on pregnancy has remained controversial despite efforts to reach consensus [ 10 ]. The main challenges in studying EMF are; 1 accurately assessing during the relevant time period and; 2 identifying susceptible population.

Therefore a case—control study has been designed o determine the effects of EMF exposure to mobile phones immediately after spontaneous abortions in selected patients. For the evaluation of the effects of EMF exposure to mobile phones on spontaneous abortions, a case control study was chosen. Due to the lack of knowledge about these effects, a pilot study on participants was carried out.

Gestational age was calculated based on the last menstrual period that was confirmed by an ultrasonographic examination. The subjects were recruited from 10 hospitals in Tehran. Smartphone during pregnancy situations in the pregnant women in the control group were matched with maternal and paternal ages, gravidity, pre-pregnancy BMI, family relationship, duration from last delivery, educational level, occupation and history of previous abortions or preterm labor with the women in the case group.

The women completed the data collection form, which was used to collect data about socioeconomic and obstetric characteristics, medical and reproductive histories, and lifestyles, smartphone during pregnancy. The second data collection form which was completed by trained interviewer was designed to obtain information about the use of cell phones during pregnancy.

SAR indicates how much electromagnetic energy is absorbed by body tissues. This parameter shows the estimation of total EMF energy. For precise evaluation of the calling time, the receipts of mobile phone bills were considered, smartphone during pregnancy. The information about the time spent for telecommunication in the specific section of new versions of cell phones were also taken into consideration.

All of the women participated voluntarily and provided written informed consent. Demographic and obstetric characteristics, as well as the parameters which reflect the use of cell phones were compared between the two groups using t-tests and chi-square tests. A logistic regression model was used to assess the association between spontaneous abortions as a binary dependent factor and effective SAR, maternal age, paternal age, history of abortion and family relationship as independent factors.

As shown, there were no significant differences in maternal and paternal ages, pre-pregnancy BMI, occupation and educational status, socioeconomic level, family relationship, duration from last delivery and history of previous abortions or preterm labors between the two groups, smartphone during pregnancy. The comparison of the maternal and paternal characteristics between smartphone during pregnancy two groups.

Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between the effective SAR with the risk of spontaneous abortions after adjustment for maternal age, paternal age, history of abortions and family relationships OR The comparison of cell phone use during pregnancy between the two groups. Exposure to EMF is increasingly common, smartphone during pregnancy, but the potential influence on health has not been thoroughly determined, especially in pregnant women. Electromagnetic fields may produce biological stress and free radicals, which can make a susceptible population prone to congenital malformations and tissue and cell damages [ 11 ].

Long-term exposure to electromagnetic fields may be linked to even higher levels of oxidative stress, with the aforementioned corresponding changes. There is limited information on the association between EMF exposure during pregnancy and reproductive outcomes [ 10 - 18 ]. Some studies have reported increased risk of spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations, smartphone during pregnancy, although these results were derived from poorly designed studies.

This study demonstrated an increased risk of spontaneous abortions associated with EMF exposure and confirmed the results of other researches [ 1012 ]. Lee conducted a smartphone during pregnancy case—control study to evaluate the association of residential and personal magnetic fields with spontaneous abortions [ 12 ]. He reported personal magnetic field maximum exposure is associated with the risk of clinical spontaneous abortions. There was one main limitation to that study; specifically, smartphone during pregnancy, the magnetic field measurements were obtained months after the first trimester and the occurrence of the spontaneous abortions.

Perhaps the behavior and magnetic fields of women who had spontaneous abortions were different from the pregnant controls. But our study had this strength that, the data were obtained shortly after the spontaneous abortions occurred in the case group and in the early second trimester in the control group. This led to a better evaluation of the environmental conditions smartphone during pregnancy the lifestyles of the participants.

Though, the present findings are inconsistent with the results of some other works [ 14 - 18 ]. Some studies do not support an association between electric and magnetic fields and reproductive damages. However, many of smartphone during pregnancy had investigated the effects of EMF either on animals or in vitro and not on human [ 14 - 16 ].

Also, lack of evidence for a strong association between EMF and adverse reproductive outcomes may be primarily the result of having little information data due to the lack of epidemiologic data in this area. One potential limitation need to be kept in mind when one interprets the results of the current study.

The study did not assess all the unknown risk factors for spontaneous abortions, such smartphone during pregnancy balanced chromosomal abnormalities in one parent, smartphone during pregnancy. Also, the data about unknown spontaneous abortion at very early stages were not collected.

Other limitation of this study is its case control nature, and this can imply that caution should be taken in causal interpretations of the findings. The third limitation of this smartphone during pregnancy is that cell phones may be not the only source of EMF. Since many parameters which can affect the EMF exposure and life styles like socioeconomic status were matched between the two smartphone during pregnancy, it is suspected that probably the effects that observed in this study are due to the use of cell phones.

The association between use of cell phones and the risk of spontaneous abortions against potential confounders was supported by evidence that despite adjustments for many known or suspected risk factors in logistic regression analyses, the estimation was not significantly altered. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of EMF on the risk of spontaneous abortions are not well understood, early embryos are known to be sensitive to environmental exposures.

An adverse effect during early fetal development at the cellular level by EMF of cell phones could conceivably result in fetal death. Based on the distance from outside the body to inside the uterus, the exposure reaching the fetus is likely to be extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation.

Despite the lack of a clear smartphone during pregnancy of the underlying mechanisms, the present result suggests that the use of cell phones may be related to early spontaneous abortions, thus further study is warranted. This study was carried out with the kind cooperation of the participating patients.

Competing interests. FSM carried out design and data collection of the study, SZ carried out design of the study and prepared the article, MF participated in design of the study, AK advised the statistical design of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Fatemeh Shamsi Mahmoudabadi, Email: ri. Saeideh Ziaei, Email: ri.

Mohammad Firoozabadi, Email: ri. Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Email: moc. National Center for Biotechnology Informationsmartphone during pregnancy, U. J Environ Health Sci Eng. Published online Apr Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Received Dec 24; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Exposure to electromagnetic fields of cell phones increasingly occurs, but the potential influence on spontaneous abortion has not been thoroughly investigated. Conclusion Our result suggests that use of mobile phones can be related to the early spontaneous abortions. Keywords: Abortion, Electromagnetic fields, Mobile phones, Pregnancy.

Introduction Widespread concerns have been raised about exposure to electromagnetic field EMF from sources used for mobile telecommunication [ 1 - 4 ]. Methods For the evaluation of the effects of EMF exposure to mobile phones on spontaneous abortions, a case control study was chosen. The inclusion criteria were as follows: singleton pregnancy; 2 18—35 years of age; 3 spontaneous pregnancy without the use of assisted reproductive technology The exclusion criteria were as follows: chronic diseases diabetes, hypertension,thyroid diseases, smartphone during pregnancy, immune system diseases and cardiovascular diseases ; 2 any genetic disorders in the women, their husbands,and their first-degree relatives ;3 vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy in the control group; 4 history of birth defects in previous pregnancies; and 5 cigarette smoking, alcohol or smartphone during pregnancy drug consumptions.

Statistical analysis Demographic and obstetric characteristics, smartphone during pregnancy, as well as the parameters which reflect the use of cell phones were compared between the two groups using t-tests and chi-square tests.

Table 1 The comparison of the maternal and paternal characteristics between the two groups. Open in a separate window, smartphone during pregnancy. Table 2 The comparison of cell phone use during pregnancy between the two groups. Discussion Exposure to EMF is increasingly common, but the potential influence on health has not been thoroughly determined, especially in pregnant women. This led to a better smartphone during pregnancy of the environmental conditions and the lifestyles of the participants Though, the present findings are inconsistent with the results of some other works [ 14 - 18 ].

Conclusion Despite the lack of a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the present result smartphone during pregnancy that the use of cell phones may be related to early spontaneous abortions, thus further study is warranted. Acknowledgments This study was carried out with the kind cooperation of the participating patients.

Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References 1. Repacholi MH. Health risks from the use of mobile phone. Occupational and Environmental Health. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioral problems in children.

Toropainen A. Human exposure by mobile phones in enclosed area.

 

Preeclampsia: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments

 

smartphone during pregnancy

 

Sep 04,  · Preeclampsia is when you have high blood pressure and protein in your urine during pregnancy or after delivery. It can be very dangerous for you and your baby. Preeclampsia can happen at Author: Jaime Herndon. Jul 23,  · A Smartphone Intervention for WIC Mothers to Improve Nutrition and Weight Gain During Pregnancy (SmartMomsinWIC) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it . Apr 21,  · Pregnancy situations in the pregnant women in the control group were matched with maternal and paternal ages, gravidity, pre-pregnancy BMI, family relationship, duration from last delivery, educational level, occupation and history of previous abortions or Cited by: